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What Byproduct Of Fermentation Results In Vinegar
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Physiology Of Acetic Acid Bacteria And Their Role In Vinegar And Fermented Beverages
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Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Bioproducts Laboratory, Sciences and Engineering, Washington State University, Tri-Cities, 2710, Crimson Way, Richland, WA 99354, USA
Gene and Linda Voyland School of Chemical and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163, USA
Vinegar And Wood Wool: Taste And Tradition
Received: 25 April 2017 / Reviewed: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Carboxylic acids are traditionally produced from fossil fuels and have significant applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food and fuel industries. Considerable progress has been made in replacing such sources of fuel used for the production of carboxylic acids with sustainable and renewable biomass resources. However, the advantages and disadvantages of each carboxylic acid processing platform depend on the industrial application of the final product. A number of studies have shown that in such processes, separation processes account for more than 30% of total processing costs. This review focuses on the sustainable development of biomass resources for the production of carboxylic acids. The review mainly focuses on the discussion and comparison of biochemical processes for the production of lower chain fatty acids such as acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids. The importance of these acids stems from recent progress in catalytic upgrading for biofuel production, in addition to the current use of carboxylic acids in the food, pharmaceutical and plastics sectors. A substantial part of the review discusses the latest techniques for the extraction and purification of these acids from fermentation broths for further processing to produce high-value products.
Acetic acid; anaerobic fermentation; ion exchange resins; lactic acid; to divide; volatile fatty acids acetic acid; anaerobic fermentation; ion exchange resins; lactic acid; to divide; volatile fatty acids
There is significant interest among industry and academic researchers worldwide in using advanced technologies to replace feedstocks for fuel and chemical production with sustainable biomass resources to support growing populations and combat environmental challenges such as global warming. Biorefineries operate essentially like petrochemical refineries in that lignocellulosic biomass, a complex mixture containing sugars and aromatic components, is broken down into a number of high-value products . Studies have also shown that some of the functional groups added to naphtha in petrochemical refineries to produce chemicals are naturally present in lignocellulosic biomass . Also, the catalytic processing of petrochemical derivatives such as naphtha and syngas, traditionally used for the production of carboxylic acids, involves high temperature and pressure conditions leading to high energy .
Effect Of Fermentation Processing On The Flavor Of Baijiu
The current North American acetic acid market was valued at $2.3 billion in 2014 and is expected to increase to $2.8 billion in 2019 . Other reports indicate that the biomass-based renewable chemicals industry is expected to grow at an estimated annual growth rate of 7.7%, resulting in a net market of $83.4 billion by 2018 . Reports from the American Chemical Council revealed that global chemical production increased by approximately 10% between 2012 and 2016 . This suggests that the use of carboxylic acids in industrial production as chemicals or solvents has a large volume, which will be discussed further in Chapter 2. It should be noted that the production of lignocellulosic biomass in the world is currently between 3 and 5 gigatons per year  . In fact, a 2004 study reported that forest reserves worldwide have the potential to supply up to 9.2 billion tons of oil equivalent, enough to meet 82% of global energy demand . A combination of pyrolysis , gasification , liquefaction , and relatively less severe thermochemical pretreatment after combined action of enzymes and microorganisms have been developed to convert lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel. 11]]. Although each of these technologies has different advantages and challenges, as discussed in several reviews in their respective fields, the current state of the final platform is usually considered unique and cost-effective and leads to high-value by-products of the streams . Previously, after thermochemical and enzymatic pretreatment, biomass sugars were converted to alcohols such as ethanol or butanol  and, to a lesser extent, anaerobic fermentation, producing carboxylic acids for further catalytic upgrading to biofuels  . Therefore, an update on recent advances in biomass-based carboxylic acid production seems timely.
Carboxylic acids or short-chain fatty acids, by definition, are a group of aliphatic mono- and non-carboxylic acids  and include organic acids such as formic, acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, butyric, iso-valeric, valeric. . , iso-caproic, caproic, oxal, milk, succinic, malic, fumar, itacone, levulin, lemon, glucone, ascorbic, etc. . Each of the above organic acids has specific production routes and market applications. For example, acetic acid is produced by the carbonylation of methanol and its current prices are largely controlled by natural gas markets . Studies have shown that methanol carbonylation methods to produce acetic acid suffer from several drawbacks such as catalyst solubility limitations and loss of expensive metal catalyst during the separation steps . Acetic acid has important applications in the food industry as vinegar  and several food products . Acetic acid is also used in the production of vinyl acetate monomers for further polymerization to produce polyvinyl acetate or PVA, which is used in many plastics, and in the production of terephthalic acid and ethyl acetate, which replace many industrial solvents as “green” solvents. . Other applications of acetic acid include its use as an etching agent , in the production of hydrophobic and lipophobic papers in polymer networks , in the production of cellulose acetate , and others.
Propionic acid is usually synthesized by hydrocarboxylation of ethylene in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel carbonyl or rhodium . The study also noted that this synthesis route accounted for approximately 93,000 of the 102,000 tons of capacity in the United States in 1991. However, by 1998, propionic acid production capacity was found to have decreased to 55,000 tons in the United States. Propionic acid is widely used, but its main use is in the preservation of food grains and animal feed . Its other applications include the production of esters , herbicides  and pharmaceuticals . In addition, propionic acid has been found to be a major byproduct of light distillate fuel oxidation to produce acetic acid in the petrochemical industry . Since the transformation of propionic acid production in the USA in the late 1990s, the growth of the food industry has seen a significant increase in demand for propionic acid and its derivatives. Market research estimated the current value of the propionic acid market at $935.7 million in 2012, with an estimated growth of 7.8% by 2018 .
Similar to propionic acid, butyric acid is also produced from the oxidation of butyraldehyde by an oxo-synthesis process . Butyric acid has important uses in oil flavor and texture  , in pharmaceuticals as a component of several anticancer drugs and other therapeutic treatments  , and as an ester in perfumery. to its fruity aroma . Market research estimated the market for butyric acid at $124.6 million in 2014, with a growth rate of 15.1% by 2020 due to its diverse applications (significantly higher than other bio-based chemicals) .
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C1-C7 acids are collectively known as “volatile oil”.