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What Guidance Is Available For Marking Sci
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Technische Universität Berlin, Faculty V Mechanical Engineering and Transport Systems, Institute for Land and Sea Transport, Chair of Naturalistic Driving Observation for Energetic Optimization and Accident Avoiding, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Received: June 30, 2021 / Revised: September 9, 2021 / Approved: September 10, 2021 / Published: September 15, 2021
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The Covid-19 pandemic has affected many areas of public life and industry. This also applies in particular to research based on scientific studies and human experiments. To reduce the risk of contamination, a number of test designs including procedures may need to be modified. A detailed analysis of current research involving the CCIDID-19 epidemic as a blueprint for managing other health conditions was conducted to develop a step-by-step strategy for planning a study in terms of infection prevention. As a result, a generic step-by-step concept was developed that is applicable to scientific studies in stationary and motor spaces while adapting to the corresponding conditions. Infection prevention measures identified through research are carried out in stages from study planning to implementation. They allow a step-by-step strategy to prevent infection in scientific studies with different environments during epidemics and in situations where increased hygiene is required.
Due to the epidemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), all areas of daily life have been reduced to protect against the virus . This also applies to companies and scientific organizations that conduct scientific studies, including human experimenters. It cannot happen or must strictly follow the infection prevention measures. To the extent that strict infection control measures are not necessary, scientific research will be hampered by the establishment of a large number of studies. To allow such work to continue, a comprehensive concept that focuses on the nature and symptoms of the epidemic with a wide range of hygiene can allow the studies to continue without increasing the risk of infection. From planning to execution, each part of the lesson requires specific steps. They should be compiled into a generic step-by-step approach, so that it can be applied to different learning environments.
Previous ideas for conducting studies during a pandemic are often very brief, undefined, and only highlight a few important factors for the safe conduct of studies. The concept of TU Dresden  only creates strict conditions for participation, hygiene and distance rules. In addition, only disinfection and respiratory measures are mentioned.
Aerosols and droplet nuclei, unlike droplets, follow the movement of indoor air. Their movement in the surrounding areas also depends on the temperature, ventilation and movement of people and objects in the room . Aerosols and droplet nuclei can be fully distributed in the room , so that infection can occur even in close contact . The concentration of aerosols and droplet nuclei in the air depends on a number of factors: the number of people present, their activities and the total time in the room, and the size of the room and the air.  .A study by Kriegel  shows that the number of infectious particles increases when an infected person is in a room without air. The number of infectious particles increases more in a small room than in a large room. At the same time, the number of attachments loaded with viruses increases significantly. Through ventilation, the number of infectious particles can be greatly reduced. Here, the air exchange rate, i.e. the time when the room air is replaced with fresh air , plays a role. Even the air exchange rate of 2.8 per hour leads to a very low number of indoor bacteria in the room and decreases significantly with higher air exchanges. The number of particles inserted into the infected cells is also greatly reduced by increasing the rate of air changes and preventing the exponential growth that occurs in an airless room.
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Lessons in the car require special measures. A study by Makoto  of simulated droplet and aerosol spread in a room shows that conversation between two people sitting nearby increases the risk of infection. This study also shows that they cannot pick up drops from the air unless they are facing each other when talking. Another study by Makoto  simulates the distribution of aerosols and droplet nuclei in the air of an unventilated vehicle. It confirmed that aerosols and droplet nuclei are distributed almost homogeneously in the vehicle interior air quickly. Due to the low internal volume of the vehicle, the concentration of aerosols and droplet nuclei increases faster than inside, which can lead to aerogenic infections even after a short exposure.
Due to the geometric characteristics of the vehicle interior, it is often not possible to maintain the recommended distance of approximately 1.5 m between the driver and the passenger . Based on trigonometric calculations, this distance can only be found in the diagonal seating plan if there are no more than two people in the car . To prevent viral infections in vehicles, it is recommended to include parts that can completely prevent direct contact and droplet infections while limiting aerogenic infections . Such protective walls can be installed, as a barrier between the front and rear of the vehicle, or between the driver and the passenger. A study by Makoto  shows the distribution of aerosols and droplet nuclei in a car three seconds after a driver coughs with a slightly open driver’s side window and built-in sidewalls. It is clear from this that the separation is effective in preventing uniform distribution of the parts, as it is more resistant in the front part of the car. Most aerosols and droplet nuclei enter the rear of the vehicle through the airflow under the protective wall. A slightly open window can also allow more particles to flow out of the vehicle.
Similar to stationary environments, interior ventilation in cars can prevent aerogenic infections . However, due to the low volume, very high air exchange rates can occur in cars. Depending on the type of air, the volume of the interior, the number of people in the car and the speed of the car, the air inside the car can be replaced with fresh air more than 300 times per hour. Three methods of supplying fresh air can be used: fresh mechanical supply, opening of windows or a combination of the two methods . In a study by Mathai et al.  it is shown that opening the windows has a positive effect on the air exchange rate which can be improved by increasing the vehicle speed. The more windows open, the more protection against infection. The mechanical supply of fresh air also has a positive effect on climate change, as shown in the study by Fruin et al. . At a higher level of the ventilation system, the air exchange rate increases. This principle also applies to stationary vehicles. A study by Knibbs et al.  confirms this as the risk of infection decreases with the use of air conditioning when driving at increased speed.
In the next section, the results of the literature research for the different parts of the study are presented. The components of each concept are then analyzed in detail in the discussion section, where conclusions and future work are presented at the end.
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A comprehensive review of epidemiological research leads to the development of concepts (Figure 1) for conducting studies to prevent transmission.