What Rf Frequencies Are Harmful To Humans

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In the past 30 years, the rapid development of electronic information, technical achievements based on electromagnetics have been widely used in various fields of production and human life. Therefore, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has become the main source of new pollution in modern civilization. The biological effects of EMR have attracted considerable attention worldwide. The potential interaction of EMR with human organs, especially the brain, is currently the subject of much attention. Many studies have shown that the nervous system is the most important target organ for EMR. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have focused on AMR (neurobiological effects), which include the modulation and transport of neurotransmitters. As messengers of synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters play a critical role in cognition and emotional behavior. Here, the effects of EMR on metabolism and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain are summarized.

What Rf Frequencies Are Harmful To Humans

What Rf Frequencies Are Harmful To Humans

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is closely related to human life and is emitted from various electrical systems such as mobile phones, microwave ovens, communication base stations, high voltage lines, electronic devices and other electromagnetic devices. EMR produces electromagnetic waves of different frequencies, and as a result the intensity of EMR increases in human habitations. High frequency waves such as cosmic, gamma, and X-rays have enough energy to cause ionization. Non-ionizing electromagnetic waves, ultraviolet, visible range, infrared, microwave and radio waves are often used in everyday life, especially radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs, 30 kHz-300 GHz) for communication and low frequency EMFs very (ELF – EMFs, 3 Hz-3 kHz) caused by electricity. RF is also commonly referred to as microwave (MW) radiation. The effect of EMR on human health has gradually attracted attention, and the associated changes in brain function have been observed in the human body (1-3). This review covers the effects of RF-EMF on neurotransmitters in the brain.

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EMR effects on body systems can depend on radiation frequency, intensity, and power, so EMR parameters are challenging for literature review. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) measures the amount of energy absorbed by the human body when exposed to electromagnetic fields between 100 kHz and 10 GHz. In watts per kilogram (w/kg), SAR reflects the energy absorbed by a unit mass of tissue. The SAR value depends on frequency, incident direction, depolarization direction, and different tissue structures. So far, SAR values ​​range from 10.

In studies on bioex microwave radiation, up to 35 W/kg. Many studies have shown that the nervous system is the most important target organ for EMR. Exposure to electromagnetic fields can cause structural and functional changes in the nervous system (4-7). Neurotransmitters are special chemicals that act as messengers during synaptic transmission in the nervous system. Many studies have shown that EMR affects the metabolism and transport of neurotransmitters (8). It is well understood that neural circuitry is the structural basis of brain function and that the brain functions through the interaction of different brain regions and many neurotransmitters. Thus, the varying effect of EMR on neurotransmitter levels in different regions of the brain may play an important role in brain function. Many studies have shown that exposure to RF-EMR can cause an imbalance of amino acid neurotransmitters in different parts of the brain (9, 10).

Neurotransmitters are synthesized by neurons and transported to presynaptic cells in synaptic vesicles. In an action potential, transmitter release at the synaptic terminal is mediated by calcium ion channels. The transmitters then diffuse into the synaptic cleft and act on specific receptors on postsynaptic neurons or effector cells, transmitting information from the pre-synapse to the post-synapse (11). Recycling can disrupt the action of neurotransmitters; That is, excess neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft are recycled into presynaptic neurons by presynaptic vectors and stored in vesicles. Neurotransmitter activity can be eliminated by enzymatic hydrolysis; For example, dopamine (DA) is inactivated by the metabolic activity of monoamine oxidase in the mitochondria and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in the cytoplasm (12). Neurotransmitters are involved in brain development processes, including neuron proliferation, differentiation and the formation of neural circuits. It allows neurons to communicate with each other, and changes in the levels of certain neurotransmitters are associated with various neurological diseases, such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease (13). Neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are divided into four categories based on their chemical composition. Biogenic amines DA, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) etc. Amino acids γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, glutamate, acetylcholine (Ach) etc. They contain peptide neurotransmitters. It contains endogenous opioid peptides and other species. The remaining category of neurotransmitters includes other types such as nitric oxide (NO) and substance P. The present review explains the important studies that shed light on the neurotransmitters in the brain in the four categories above when exposed to EMR. Therefore, it provides an overview of the metabolism and receptor changes of these neurotransmitters.

For literature retrieval, the articles in the PubMed NCBI database were selected, written in English with the keywords each “neuronal transmitter” and “electromagnetic field” or “radiofrequency electromagnetic field” related to brain exposure to RF-EMF. In total, 21 articles related to short-term exposure of EMR to neurotransmitters are discussed in the text and discussed in Table 1, and 19 articles related to long-term exposure of EMR to neurotransmitters are discussed in the text and discussed discussed in Table 2.

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As a precursor of norepinephrine, DA is a key neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It is primarily responsible for activity in the brain related to reward, learning, emotion, motor control, and executive functions. DA is also associated with brain and neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease (13). It has been suggested that DA inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, and there is an axonal connection and interaction between gonadotropin-releasing hormone and DA neurons (49). DA deficiency in the basal ganglia is observed in patients with parkinsonism (50). DA also has a limited role in schizophrenia – striatal DA is increased, and cortical DA distribution is altered (51, 52).

Several studies have reported the effect of EMR on DA. For example, adult mice exposed to EMR for 1 hour a day, at an EMR frequency of 1, 800 MHz, the value of specific absorption rate (SAR) is 0.843 W / kg, power density 0.02 mW / cm

, a significant reduction in DA in the hippocampus at 2 months and 1 month after the end of exposure. This study reported that EMR exposure reduces DA production in the hippocampus, impairs arousal in rats, and contributes to reduced learning and memory after exposure to EMR (14). Maarufi and others. Mice exposed to 900 MHz EMF, 1 s/day on 21 consecutive days, had a minimum SAR of 0.05 W/kg and a maximum SAR of 0.18 W/kg, depending on the location of the mice. DA reduction was observed in the hippocampus in the group exposed to EMR. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in DA and hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels between the hippocampus and striatum in the EMR exposed group (34). Furthermore, exposure to RF-EMR at 835 MHz, SAR value 4.0 W/kg, for 5 h/day for 12 weeks led to a decrease in DA concentration in a segment of C57BL/6 mice (33). The above studies show that some microwave radiation causes abnormal metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters in the hippocampus and striatum.

What Rf Frequencies Are Harmful To Humans

Inaba et al. Adult mice were exposed to microwave radiation for 1 hour, at a frequency of 2, 450 MHz, and a power level of 5 and 10 mW/cm.

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In that order. DOPAC content in the pons and medulla oblongata, DA turnover rates, and the DOPAC:DA ratio in the striatum and cerebral cortex were significantly increased at a power density of 10 mW/cm.

But at a power density of 5 mW/cm, no significance was observed in DA content in any brain region.

(15) also divided 32 pregnant Wistar rats into a control group, a low dose group (received cell phone radiation for 10 minutes), a medium dose group (received cell phone radiation for 30 minutes), and a high dose group. (Receiving mobile phone radiation for 60 minutes). Mice were exposed to radiation three times a day continuously for 20 days from the day of conception. Then, the effect of mobile phone radiation on monoamine neurotransmitters was studied in fetal rat brain tissue, with a center frequency of 900 MHz and a SAR value of 0.9 W/kg. The results showed that the content of DA in the brain tissue of fetal rats increased in the low-dose group, but decreased in the high-dose group, and no significant changes were observed in the medium-dose group, indicating long-term mobility. Phone radiation can cause abnormal DA content in the central nervous system of fetal rats and impair rat brain development (35). In conclusion, these studies show that EMR can lead to metabolism